Thursday, August 27, 2020

Dementia Essays - Cognitive Disorders, Dementia, Free Essays

Dementia Essays - Cognitive Disorders, Dementia, Free Essays Dementia What is Dementia? Dementia is a natural cerebrum disorder which brings about worldwide psychological disabilities. Dementia can happen because of an assortment of neurological ailments. A portion of the more notable twisting sicknesses incorporate Alzheimer's ailment (AD), multi-infarct dementia (MID), and Huntington's malady (HD). All through this article the accentuation will be put on AD (otherwise called dementia of the Alzheimer's sort, and essential degenerative dementia), in light of the fact that measurably it is the most critical twisting infection happening in over half of maniacal patients (see the study of disease transmission). The clinical picture in dementia is fundamentally the same as ridiculousness, with the exception of the course. Incoherence is an intense short lived issue. By differentiate Dementia is a drawn out dynamic issue (except for the reversible dementias). The course of AD can go somewhere in the range of 1.5 to 15 years with a normal of about 8.1 years (Terry , 1988). Advertisement is typically separated into three phases gentle, moderate, and extreme. All through these stages a particular grouping of psychological disintegration is watched (Lezak, 1993). The mellow stage starts with memory, consideration, speed subordinate exercises, and conceptual thinking brokenness. Additionally mellow language disabilities start to surface. In the moderate stage, language deficiencies, for example, aphasia and apraxia become noticeable. Dysfluency, paraphasias, and bizzare word blends are basic midstage discourse abandons. In the serious stage the patient is step by step diminished to a vegetative st ate. Discourse becomes nonfluent, tedious, and to a great extent non-open. Sound-related cognizance is exceedingly restricted, with numerous patients showing incomplete or complete mutism. Late over the span of the malady numerous neuropsychological capacities can never again be estimated. Additionally crude reflexes, for example, handle and suck rise. Demise generally results from a malady, for example, pneumonia which overpowers the constrained vegetative elements of the patient. Dementia is usually separated along two measurements: age and cortical level. The principal measurement, age, recognizes feeble and presenile dementia. Feeble dementia is utilized to portray patients who become unbalanced after the age of 65, though presenile dementia applies to patients who become unhinged before that age. Late beginning AD (LOAD) otherwise called feeble dementia Alzheimer's sort (SDAT) is the prevalent reason for decrepit dementia. Beginning stage AD (EOAD) is the most successive reason for presenile dementia, however HD, Pick's sickness and Creutzfeldt-Jakob malady however not as continuous are likewise significant causes in presenile dementia. The subsequent measurement, cortical level, separates among cortical and subcortical dementia. Cortical dementia is utilized to depict dementia which results from mind sores at the cortical level, though subcortical dementia portrays dementia coming about because of subcortical cerebrum injuries. Promotion and Pick's illness are the most popular instances of cortical dementia; while HD, Parkinson's infection (PD), and dynamic supranuclear paralysis (PSP) are genuine instances of subcortical dementia (Mayke, 1994). Dementia with both cortical and subcortical highlights is additionally conceivable, all things considered the term blended dementia is utilized. MID is a typical case of blended dementia. Recorded improvements in dementia Pre-Modern Developments The utilization of the term dementia goes back to Roman occasions. The Latin word demens didn't initially have the particular implication that it does today. It signified 'being crazy' and, in that capacity, was a general term for craziness (Pitt, 1987). It was the encylopedist Celsus who first utilized the word dementia in quite a while De re medicina, distributed around AD 30. After a century the Cappadocian doctor Aretaeus first portrayed feeble dementia with the word dotage (i.e., The dotage which is the catastrophe of old age...dotage beginning with mature age never intermits, however goes with the patient until death.). Inquisitively, dementia was referenced in many frameworks of mental order all through pre-present day times, however the exact significance of the word is regularly muddled (Pitt, 1987). Nineteenth Century It very well may be contended that the birthplaces of the logical investigation of dementia go back to the mid nineteenth century. The underlying advances were embraced by the incomparable French therapist Pinel toward the start of that century. Pinel's perceptions drove him to the end that the term dementia ought to be applied according to the dynamic mental changes found in certain blockheads (Pitt,3). Besides, Pinel believed that dementia was an unmistakable irregular element, and hence he utilized the term dementia to assign one of the five classes of mental unhinging. Nonetheless, by applying the term dementia

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Case Study Of Child Abuse Counselling

So as to mastermind beginning gatherings with the customers certain means must be thought of:- The assortment and the capacity of the information ought to follow the set up enactment of protection and classification. Prior to the assortment of the data, assents ought to be taken from the customers and they ought to be educated about the explanations behind the meetings (Mealer and Jones, 2014). As per the Privacy Act, an individual’s assent is required before gathering any data (Privacy law| Office of the Australian Information Commissioner - OAIC, 2018).  All the stars and the cons of the meeting and the explanation for the conduction of the meeting ought to be educated off. One of the moral problems that can emerge is that all the data will be acquired without telling the McLeod’s anything. Henceforth a customer may discover that person getting into their own issue. Henceforth, the neighbors ought to likewise be educated about the standards about youngster misuse and the outcomes and the secrecy of the respondants must be kept up. Divulgence of any wellspring s of data to the McLeod’s with respect to their neighbor’s is carefully disallowed according to the law. Questions that may include double dealing and abnormal mental anxieties ought to be maintained a strategic distance from (Mealer and Jones, 2014). Goldman, J. D., and Grimbeek, P. (2015). Preservice teachers’ wellsprings of data on obligatory detailing of youngster sexual abuse. Journal of kid sexual abuse,â 24(3), 238-258. Graycar, R. (2012). Family law change in Australia, or solidified chooks returned to again?. Theoretical Inquiries in Law,â 13(1), 241-269. Mealer, M., and Jones, J. (2014). Methodological and moral issues identified with subjective phone meets on delicate topics. Nurse Researcher (2014+),â 21(4), 32. Parkinson, P. (2013). The possibility of family relationship focuses in Australia. Family Court Review,â 51(2), 195-213. Protection law| Office of the Australian Information Commissioner - OAIC. (2018).     Retrieved 11 February 2018, from law/ Rogers, An., and Pilgrim, D. (2014). A humanism of psychological wellness and sickness. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

Friday, August 21, 2020

5 Useful Money Making Tips You Should Know

5 Useful Money Making Tips You Should Know Make Money Online Queries? Struggling To Get Traffic To Your Blog? Sign Up On (HBB) Forum Now!5 Useful Money Making Tips You Should KnowUpdated On 23/04/2017Author : Crystal J. BriscoeTopic : FeaturedShort URL : CONNECT WITH HBB ON SOCIAL MEDIA Follow @HellBoundBlogSome people think that making money online is a simple task as you are offered with loads of opportunities on the internet. However, this is not true. Making online money is not a casual task till you do a thorough research and analysis of the money making tips and take your work very seriously.There are lots of ways like online games, pay per click advertising, paid surveys, personalized products, internet auction, Forex trading and multi-level marketing through which you can make money.You can select your time according to your convenience to make online money, be it day or night. Moreover, these legitimate ways of making money will also save you from the “Easy Schemes for Getting Rich” or mak ing online money scams and frauds who make false promises.Here are some tips which would help you in earning good money online:1. Be productiveThe most important tip is to be serious in whatever online work or business you do. This is because productivity is the means to profit. Working online and making money is no fun and needs total dedication and commitment.Rather, if you really serious about earning money online then promise yourself that work is no fun. This does not mean that you do not enjoy the work you do but the point is whatever online work you do, you should take it seriously and give your time and dedication.2. Online storeWith a few hundred dollars, you can start an online store. The easy technology allows you to set up an online e-commerce business. This is one of the many money making tips through which lots of people have earned good money and made a comfortable living. You got lots of free open source shopping charts to implement.All this business needs is hard wo rk, determination and certainly a fine business plan and ideas. Once you get adapted to this online business culture, you can set up several other similar online stores which sell services and products.3. Start your own websiteStarting your own website is the best ways for making money online. When you are using the internet, you are dealing with websites. Apart from searching for the information or idea, you may also post your money making tips.READ5 Things To Follow To Be A Good Guest BloggerYou can earn money by advertising, selling and promoting your own services or products or do affiliate marketing without paying anything.Your customers will also have more faith as they find it easy to contact you through your own website. So, this method is an easy and inexpensive way of making money online. There are lots of service providers through which you can get a safe and secured domain for creating your own website.4. Make your website a successSEO or Search Engine Optimization plays a major role in making your created website a success. Unless you optimize your website, you will not be able to make good money as your website will not get good traffic.Hence follow SEO tips through which you can easily and successfully optimize your website and makes it prominent in the firs page of major search engines. Getting inbound links, social bookmarking, article directory submission and website directory submissions are some of the useful SEO tips which would help in generating traffic to your website.You may search for various SEO tools on the internet which would help you to discover the important keywords in your webpage.5. Become a Premium BloggerWriting for other people’s website is also one of the money making tips but you need to assure that you get the right client. You should find interest in working with your clients and you should be able to write for them.Having your own personal blogs would be an added advantage. The websites can verify your job and the t raffic you obtain and can either sign up you as a permanent blogger for their site or pay you for each blog.This article is written by Crystal J. Briscoe. He is Professional Writer and also technical guru, overloaded with a wealth of experience, and even more degrees, at present learning Microsoft Certifications. If you wish to write for us, kindly check this.

Monday, May 25, 2020

The War For Equality During The 20th Century - 1218 Words

The War for Equality The first half of the Twentieth century witnessed both WWI and WWII and another war as well; the War for Equality. With a racism and persecution at a high level, racial minorities were ready to fight back. In the first half of the Twentieth century the mistreatment of racial minorities led to a War for Equality; fought on many levels with varying levels of success. The war was fierce and did not end in the first half of the Twentieth Century. Like any war the War for Equality had its’ causes, in this case the war was brought about by the continued mistreatment of racial minorities. This mistreatment came in many forms: segregation, violation of other civil rights, and violence. Racial minorities faced segregation on different levels. Blacks were kept out of public facilities in the South, Mexicans in the West, and Chinese out of America itself. In 1896 The Supreme Court case, Plessy v. Ferguson, determined separate public facilities were constitutional as long they were equal, allowing segregation of racial minorities. Segregated facilities rarely proved equal. While the Supreme Court ruling kept blacks out of white facilities, the Chinese Exclusion Act kept the Chinese out of America. The Chinese Exclusion Act, renewed in 1902, made it increasingly difficult for Chinese to enter America, while also making it easier for them to be deported (Chinese Exclusion Act). Consequently, Mexicans filled the role of cheap la borers that Chinese previouslyShow MoreRelatedJohn Locke on Liberty and Equality933 Words   |  4 PagesLiberalism is a political philosophy based on the ideas of liberty and equality; it supports the ideas of civil rights, freedom of religion, freedom of press, and free trade. Liberalism traces its origins to the works of John Locke in the seventeenth century and the philosophy of enlightenment in the eighteenth century. Locke wrote that every man has a natural right to life, liberty and property (â€Å"All mankind being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, libertyRead MoreRationality in Humans Essay793 Words   |  4 Pagesthose who do not believe. If there is a war, there will be those that want peace. If there is a political movement, there will be those that disagree. Humans are bound to go against their own believes, their own strategies, and their own establishments. Nothing is forever. History portrays people going against the acce pted ideologies. It shows the everlasting change of the society. First, they thought that God was the explanation to everything. A century later, they started doubting the Bible. TheRead MoreThe Evolution of Gender Roles and its Role in Society1505 Words   |  7 Pagesinfluenced society. The slow progress of woman’s rights throughout humanities led to an explosion of woman’s rights throughout the 20th century and that trend will only continue on into the rest of the 21st century. First, it is important to understand how gender roles first differentiated amongst males and females in prehistoric cultures and the civilizations thereafter. During the Paleolithic period (ca. 6 million to 10,000 B.C.E) the earliest of humankind lived a nomadic way of life (Fiero). Men wereRead MoreWomen‚Äà ´s Suffrage Movement of Europe1187 Words   |  5 PagesThroughout history, women have struggled for equality in all parts of the world. European women fought for suffrage for an extremely long period of time before they were granted full voting rights. Each country approved women’s suffrage at different times, but it occurred in most European countries in the early 20th century. The first country to develop universal suffrage was Finland in the year 1906(â€Å"Women’s Suffrage in Europe†). One of the last countries to become open about women’s voting rightsRead MoreI Have A Dream Speech By Reverend Martin Luther King Jr.926 Words   |  4 PagesThe Equality of Some A little over 50 years ago, Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his â€Å"I have a Dream Speech† in front of thousands addressing the racism in America. Though racism was a big issue in the United States during the 20th century, and may still be in a few areas today, he was not only addressing the problem of it, but the equality of men. In his speech he quoted words directly from the Declaration of Independence stating, â€Å"I have a dream that one day this nation will rise upRead MoreSoviet Revolutions And The Soviet Revolution1194 Words   |  5 PagesThe 20th century was a tumultuous time all around the world. The 1900s saw two world wars and several revolutions. Among these revolutions, Russia and China stand out among them all. These two countries were the first two to fall to communist revolutions. Communists focused on eliminating class systems and creating a society where property is publicly owned and everyone is paid according to their abilities. Communists believed that this type of society would be better for all people. This ideal societyRead MoreEssay On How Have We Fail1123 Words   |  5 PagesHow Have We Failed America has been failing to live up to the expectations of its founding fathers since the very beginning. Our founding fathers had envisioned a country that would ensure equality, justice, and liberty for all while carrying out general welfare and ensuring domestic tranquility. It should have been our first and foremost duty to make that vision a reality since these values are the very foundation of America. But throughout history, America has suffered from racism, injustice, exploitationRead MoreThe During The Mid 20th Century1657 Words   |  7 Pagesthe spate of transformation that started during the mid 20th century is: how can the history of the mid 1900s be construed in one, single, wholly encompassing idea? The past 70 years since the end of World War II have seen momentous changes to numerous countries all around the world. Each country have experienced developments, both negative and positive, to the social, political, and economic state of themselves. The history of the la ter twentieth century can be defined with the idea of reformationRead MoreWomen s Rights Movement And The Demand For Women Suffrage1650 Words   |  7 Pages19th century from a variety of other movements. A major goal of the woman s rights movement was to change public opinion regarding women s capacities and rights. Suffrage was one of several reforms intended to end the significant legal, political, religious, and cultural discriminations against nineteenth century women. Suffrage became the primary goal of the woman s rights movement during the 1850s and remained so until women finally achieved the right to vote in 1920.During 20th century theyRead MoreThe Tyranny Of White Majority Essay1511 Words   |  7 Pagesfreedom, has been struggling with lingering racism and discrimination throughout the 19th and 20th century. Democratic reform throughout the century were implanted to eliminate the â€Å"tyranny of the white majority† Yet many scholars like Tocqueville, Fredrick Harris and WEB DuBois have challenged these results. The reality is that the tyranny of white majority has continued throughout the 18th to the 21st century resulting in a society that has suppressed and constantly failed to integrate African American

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Use Of Fda Regulation Of Drug Industry And Its Impact...

INTRODUCTION Human drugs are regulated by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). One of the first legislation which authorized FDA to regulate drugs was â€Å"Pure Food and Drugs Act† enacted in 1906. In last century, role of FDA has significantly increased in terms of regulation and supervision of drugs to promote and protect public health. The historical evolution of FDA regulation of the drug industry and its impact on marketing unapproved drugs will be discussed later in this memorandum. The term â€Å"drug† is defined means â€Å"articles intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in man† by â€Å"affecting the structure or any function of the body of man.† In order to be marketed, â€Å"new drug† needs to have an approved application. â€Å"New Drug† can be defined as â€Å"any drug†¦the composition of which is such that such drug is not â€Å"generally recognized as safe and effective† for their labelled use. Prescription drug are prescribed by a physician, usually bought at pharmacy, prescribed for and intended to be used by one person and regulated by FDA through the New Drug Application (NDA) process. A typical NDA approval process includes three clinical phases which are distinct in terms of number of patients, length of study and purpose. The new drug application approval process helps in maintaining certain safeguards such as drug safety, dosing, manufacturing quality control standards, review of ongoing clinical safety and efficacy data,Show MoreRelatedRegulatory Agency: Food and Drug Administration Essay1617 Words   |  7 PagesAgency: Food and Drug Administration Victoria Steele University of Phoenix Regulatory Agency: Food and Drug Administration The regulation of all areas of health care in The United States falls to The United States Department of Health and Human. One such area is the regulation on medications dispensed within the United States. The section of The United States Department of Health and Human Services responsible for regulation on medications is the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). WhereasRead MoreDifferent Applications For Small And Large Molecules1623 Words   |  7 Pagesand BLA. Why are there different applications for small and large molecules? A small molecule drug approval required a New Drug Application (NDA) because it covered under Federal Food Drug and cosmetic Act Section 505 while large molecule drug required a Biologics License Application (BLA) because it covered under Public Health Service Act Section 351. Compared with conventional small-molecule drugs, products derived from a biological source are structurally complex, large molecules and involvedRead MoreOrphan Drug Market Development And Manufacturing Of Products1622 Words   |  7 PagesOrphan drug which is a drug or biologic that treats a patient population of less than 200,000 within the United States. There is an entire segment of the pharmaceutical industry comprised of companies that develop and manufacture treatments for rare diseases. The Orphan Drug market has a projected Worldwide 2020 sales forecast $178bn with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11.7% per year1. The projected growth of the Orphan Drug market is nearly double that of the prescription drug marketRead MoreMarketing Analysis : Health Marketing Communications Essay1724 Words   |  7 Pagesopportunities for brands to penetrate into this market segment. However, brands have to carefully consider the credibility of marketing tools when approaching h ealth-conscious consumers since they have been growing up among information rich society. At the same time, they are familiar with traditional marketing and sales tactics. Therefore, they tend to have an open mind to initiative marketing and authentic contents rather than direct advertising. Also, it has been noted that visual contents distributed throughRead MoreStarbucks Case Study Essay1357 Words   |  6 Pageshave upgraded their coffee menus trying to mimic their style. Also coffee-houses/shops are opening who have adopted the idea of community and become just as popular and profitable. The company realized it reached a plateau and needed to develop new marketing and strategies to be competitive, retain, and gain customers. In order to remain competitive companies must stay innovative and reinvent their brand according to changes in society. A company that focuses on one advantage can limit their profitRead MorePhase Iv Of The Phase II And Phase IIi1443 Words   |  6 Pages the safety of a drug or device is a priority and this initial testing phase can take several months to complete and generally includes 20 to 100 paid healthy volunteers in study. The design of the study is to determine the effects of the drug or device on humans including how it is absorbed, metabolized, and excreted. The investigation of a side effects also observed by an increasing the drug doses. Not all drugs are passing during this phase, but nearly 70% of experimental drugs pass during thisRead MoreEthical Issues Associated With Marketing And Advertising2384 Words   |  10 Pagessociety in general. Ethical issues associated with Marketing and Advertising: Ethical issues in marketing arise from conflicts of interest among parties doing business with each other. Ethical marketing efforts and decisions should meet the expectations of the various players in the marketing effort (Halbert Ingulli, 2012). Each party has its own expectation on how the business relationship is supposed to be. Advertisements are the most common marketing methods used by businesses. Ads last longer thanRead MoreThe Food And Drug Administration1834 Words   |  8 PagesThe Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for protecting and promoting  public health  through regulating pharmaceutical drugs, biologics and medical device in context to granting approvals for marketing authorization, surveillance of the clinical trial study of the drug, post-marketing surveillance of the medical product, etc. The Pharmaceutical companies seek for FDA approval for a new drug to be marketed through a lon g process. This process starts with applying an application knownRead MoreThe Effects Of Distributing Thalidomide On The Late 1950s1481 Words   |  6 PagesA little white pill, sold as an over-the-counter drug, lined the shelves of pharmacies across the globe. Originating from the German drug company, Chemie Grà ¼tinethal, this pill was advertised to a highly receptive international market and was a success in 1959. Several years later, physicians began to form a link between phocomelia, a birth deformity, and pregnant woman who ingested the German-created drug. That little white pill is known as Thalidomide. Staying in the market for almost six yearsRead MorePharmaCare essay3748 Words   |  15 Pagespharmaceutical companies grow in unprecedented size and strength. Due to the unprecedented growth the larger pharmaceutical companies have gained leverage and power in the prescription drug industry, but they lack innovation to market and they seek ways to help the business continu e to increase its profits. The pharmaceutical industry was once ethically sound and was a valuable player in the development of human health. However, overtime with the lack of innovation pharmaceutical companies are becoming an unethical

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Theory of Development of Adult Relationships Essay

Attachment: A Theory of Development of Adult Relationships Kristina Mihajlovic University of Illinois at Chicago As humans, building relationships between others is a form of connecting and communicating. It is a social situation that is experienced every day through the course of a lifetime. The initial relationship that is made is between the mother and the child. This bond that connects two people is known to be called attachment. The theory of attachment begins at birth, and from that, continuing on to other relationships in family, friends, and romance. Attachment is taught through social experiences, however the relationship with the mother and her temperament are the key factors in shaping the infants attachment type, which†¦show more content†¦More common behavior in avoidant men rather than women is the ability to reduce emotions so that anger or hostility is not present in conflict. This is because they are emotionally non-supportive. With anger and hostility there is a sense of involvement which needs support. This is where ambivalent types are shown. When dealing with a maj or problem they tend to show much more emotion and passion; greater anger, stress, and anxiety. After the conflict they see their relationship and partner less positive in terms of commitment, openness with each other, and supportiveness. (Simpson et al., 1996) The fourth (Simpson, Collins, Tran amp; Haydon, 2007) is a longitudinal study that studied participant’s experiences during their periods of critical attachment processes from four different stages; infancy, elementary, adolescence and early adulthood (20-23 years old.) From these attachment experiences, they become characteristics of personality and social development. As with all the other studies, the results seem to go with the same manner; infants who are secure at the beginning of their lives end up being socially apt in elementary school, and have a secure relationship with friends in adolescence. Whereas infants who are insecure, stay with the trend as they grow up. (Simpson et al., 2007) These results stay wi th the core idea of the attachment theory (Bowlby, 1979.) This seems to be the only study that shows earlyShow MoreRelatedAttachment Theory and the Differences in the Development of Social Relationships in Aging Adults2176 Words   |  9 PagesHow the attachment theory accounts for differences in the development of social relationships in aging adults? Name Institution Date How the attachment theory accounts for differences in the development of social relationships in aging adults? The attachment theory is one of the common theories in the specification of child development and growth in the world. Indeed, several influencing factors are concerned with the generation and establishment of the relationship that exists between parentsRead MoreEriksons Psychosocial Theory of Development: Young Adults Essay1494 Words   |  6 PagesEriksons Psychosocial Theory of Development: Young Adults The young adult has numerous stresses placed upon them through the route of development. Erikson has theorised developmental stages of growth into tasks. Of Eriksons theoretical tasks, one task describes the theory of intimacy versus isolation. This task theory can be examined using the normative crisis model. The knowledge of developmental tasks of the young adult can be beneficial to the nurse especially associated with their abilityRead MoreVygotsky s Theory Of Internalisation1709 Words   |  7 Pages Vygotsky also introduced his theory of internalisation, one of the main concepts that differentiated from that of Jean Piaget (Duchesne, S., McMaugh, A. 2016. P.103). The theory of internalisation put forward by Vygotsky is an idea that suggests an individual is able to observe and internalise the ideas and processes of their surroundings as they partake in social interaction defined as, â€Å"new ways of thinking† (Duchesne, S., McMaugh, A.,2016p.103). During social interaction the individualsRead MoreHow Does Attachment Influence The Social And Emotional Development Of The Child? Essay1378 Words   |  6 Pagesand emotional development of the child? A child’s social and emotional development has significant implications for the social functioning of a child throughout their lives, in their education, friendships and employment. A child with poor or social and emotional development are at risk of experiencing poor relationships with peers, academic problems and ca n lead them into involvement in unsociable activities or crime. Research suggests the key to social and emotional development lies in the child’sRead MoreThe Social And Emotional Development Essay1108 Words   |  5 PagesAttachment relationship is important for both child and parents/caregiver to develop because of social and emotional need. A child’s emotional and social development has significant impact for the social function of a child throughout their lives, education, friendships and employment. Research show that a child with no social and emotional development are at very high risk of having poor relationships with peers, academic problems and can lead them into poor decision in life and crime. Many researchesRead MoreAdult Learning Is The Best Known Of These Theoretical Approaches Essay1333 Words   |  6 Pagestheoretical approaches to adult learning which have proved to be beneficial for the research on adult learning. Some of the frameworks have helpe d researchers think about practices across various contexts of adult learning. Andragogy is arguably the best-known of these theoretical approaches. Malcolm Knowles is credited with bringing this framework to attention. Andragogy has been broadly debated by scholars, but still remains one of the most enduring and widely cited theories of adult learning (MerriamRead MoreJean Piaget And Vygotsky s Theory On Children s Cognitive Development1507 Words   |  7 Pagestheir knowledge on children’s cognitive development. Both psychologists had their own vision of what stimulates and helps a child grow. Jean Piaget s theory was shaped through the thinking and understanding of how knowledge is built through a series of four stages; preoperational, sensorimotor, formal operational and concrete operational. He believed that the development was with the child themselves. On the contrary, Lev Vygotsky s theory is shaped through adult social interactions and cultural rolesRead MoreEric Er iksons Theory Of Psychosocial Development827 Words   |  4 Pages Development describes the growth of humans throughout the lifespan, from conception to death. The study of human development helps to understand how and why people change throughout life. This includes all aspects of human growth, including physical, intellectual, language, social and emotional and spiritual development. Development is dynamic, however, the ability to progress to each developmental phase will affect the overall health of the person. Each child is unique and develops at his /herRead MoreHas Anyone Put Any Psychological Thought Into How They1483 Words   |  6 Pagesdedicated their lives to this type of development. Erikson theorists would take a social influence stance, and Piagetian theorists focus on one’s cognition. So, who is right? More knowledge has been obtained to know that human behavior should be social and the need to socialize with other people. Erikson believes this whereas Piaget thought of qualitative thinking that shapes a child. Erikson is mor e influential about identity development because he explains his theory with more stages than Piaget, appropriateRead MoreObservation of Child Growth Essay1435 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction red - Development blue – Conclusion orange Individualism– Giving priority to one’s own goals over group          goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes          rather than group identification.       For the first time in my life I am being an individualist. I am giving greater priority to my own personal goals. I honestly don’t know what I was thinking changing careers at the age of 42 but I am determined to get my nursing degree. For the next 2 years it will be

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Plain Packaging on Cigarettes

Question: Describe about the Plain Packaging on Cigarettes? Answer: 1: Market power or monopoly power can be exercised in those markets where there is a single seller of a particular good and the seller acquires substantial power over the price. In all cases a monopolist is famous for charging high price at the expense of the consumers. In this case, there are two countries both selling a given good at different prices. It is assumed that Country charges high price for the good than the Country B. Here the consequence of monopoly power can be justified if Country is A selling the good in domestic market that is in his own country. The monopoly power in the domestic market can be exercise if it does not have any competitor or strong substitute goods. But if both countries engage in beneficial trade then the consumers of Country A may find that the same good is cheaper in Country B. Then the consumers can import such a good from Country B. so in the international market Country may not be able to exercise monopoly or market power because Country B will ac t like a competitor and thus will be able to capture the market share of that particular good. So for Country A things would not be favourable if trade opened up between the countries and consumers start comparing between the price of goods and make rational purchase of good where the price is low. For example, British Steel exercises monopoly power in the domestic market but faces international competition. This is because with the increase in globalization, the firms need to exercise monopoly power domestically in order to be competitive globally. Thus the notion is not purely correct or not purely wrong but is uncertain. (, 2015) 2: The plain packaging law for cigarettes meant homogenous packaging where all branding like logos, trademarks, images etc. needs to be removed. This was adopted for a universal reduction in tobacco consumption. But the effectiveness of such measures is criticized in many countries on that the ground that it did not reduce the tobacco sale rather increased the sale of cigarettes. But the biggest cigarettes makers have a different outlook to this law and they found out that this law can be detrimental to their business. So they opposed the measure and announced that they would take legal steps so as to withhold the law (Australia, 2014). The reason behind such action is that the plain universal packaging might influence the smokers to quit their habit which would reduce sale of their cigarettes and in turn reduce their revenue from it. This would leave the producers worse-off. In 2009, National Preventative Health Taskforce reported that the packaging plays an important role that mislead s the smokers about the detrimental impact of tobacco. Hence, this posed a threat to the cigarette makers. (, 2015) From the economic point of view, the law could not prove its efficiency. This is because a study show that about 57% of British smoker said that it is difficult for them to quit smoking no matter what the package looked like. This law can also give rise to illegal trading of cheap cigarettes. Smoking has a strong relation with poverty. High wage earners tend to smoke less and the low wage earners smoke heavy. But if this prohibition is taken seriously and people get influenced by it and quit smoking then it can improve the death rates and reduce the epidemics. This overall improvement in health can be depicted by the Human Development Index of the countries which takes the life expectancy rate into account. (Dodds, 2014) 3: The survey by the IMPI revealed that around 70% of the Mexican population engages in consumption and purchase of pirated goods and services. The government has taken several copyright enforcement efforts with the help of the right holders to prevent the sale of pirated products. The impact of such law enforcement has benefitted the country but the pace of the effectiveness of the law was regarded to be very slow between the right holders and Internet service providers. (Karaganis, 2011)The direct impact of penalizing the pirated companies and the internet users is that there operation reduced and the situation or market conditions for the rights holders improved. The law enforcement also helped to stop the illegal trading of goods at cheap rates. (Spink and Levente Fejes, 2012)The economic implication is that the law helped to stabilize the prices of goods sold by the rights holder. In this regard, the elimination of piracy causes demand and supply to regulate and determine the corre ct equilibrium price and quantity. This determined price can be slightly higher than the pirated price but the interest of the rights holder would be improved. (INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ALLIANCE (IIPA) 2014 SPECIAL 301 REPORT ON COPYRIGHT PROTECTION AND ENFORCEMENT, 2014) References: Australia, W. (2014).Why plain packaging is reducing the number of smokers in Australia. [online] The Sydney Morning Herald. Available at: [Accessed 21 Mar. 2015]. Dodds, L. (2014).Plain packaging on cigarettes: Where does it all end?. [online] Available at: [Accessed 21 Mar. 2015]., (2015).Monopoly power. [online] Available at: [Accessed 21 Mar. 2015]. INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ALLIANCE (IIPA) 2014 SPECIAL 301 REPORT ON COPYRIGHT PROTECTION AND ENFORCEMENT. (2014). 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: [Accessed 21 Mar. 2015]. Karaganis, J. (2011).Media piracy in emerging economies. New York, NY: Social Science Research Council. Spink, J. and Levente Fejes, Z. (2012). A review of the economic impact of counterfeiting and piracy methodologies and assessment of currently utilized estimates.International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, 36(4), pp.249-271., (2015).Plain Packaging in the UK - TobaccoTactics. [online] Available at: [Accessed 21 Mar. 2015].